Address: Bokhnyaka St.10, office 15, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky,
Kamchatka Krai, Russia, 683031
Phone / Fax: (41522) 5-10-21, mobile.: 8-909-835-3530
Kamchatkan hot springs and therapeutic mineral waters are wonderful. There are about 200 of them there. 124 springs are hot. Most of them are located in the Eastern Volcanic Belt and rather less in Sredinny Range. There is not a single hot spring on the territory of Western Kamchatka depression and in northern regions. Some of the springs and hot springs are located in craters of volcanoes or on the bottom of calderas; others are located either at the valleys bottom or on the surface of terraces or at their feet.
The following types of thermal and mineral waters are distinguished by chemical composition:
Sulfate-sodium, rarely calcium with mineralization of 0.6 to 2.3 g/l (.02-.8 oz per liter) (Verkhne-Golyginskie, Ksudachinskie, Verkhne-Paratunskie, Nizhne-Paratunskie, Bolshie Bannye, Malye Bannye, Nachikinskie, Essovskie, Anavgaiskie, Apapelskie, Palanskie springs and so on);
Chloride-sodium waters with mineralization from 1.1 to 11.9 g/l (Zhirovskie, Malkinskie, Nalychevskie, Kraevedcheskie, Talovskie, Pushchinskie, Akademii Nauk and others);
Hydrocarbonate-calcium waters with mineralization from 0.9 to 4.6 g/l (Timonovskie, Dzenzurskie, Shchapinskie, Oksinskie and others).
Hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and partially methane prevail in gas composition of waters.
Nalychevo Valley Hot Springs The intermountain kettle, which becomes overgrown with wood-meadow of stone birch, is an area of springs on the surface. It is surrounded by grand cones of active and extinct volcanoes. There are seven groups of thermal springs in Nalychevo hollow. All of them are located in the basin of the Pravaya Nalycheva river head, approximately in 60 km (37 miles) from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky.
Nalychevo springs (main group) are located in the valley of the left tributary of the Goryachaya river (the right tributary of the Pravaya Nalycheva river), in 12 km (7.5 miles) to the south-south-west of Vershinskaya mountain. On a flat travertine (carbonate) cone of 150-200 meters (500-700 ft) in diameter, more than 50 concentrated thermal seeps are located. After drilling performed on this site, the thermal spring regime has changed. Before drilling the kettle which originated the travertine cover cone when the water was flowing used to be the main seep. Maximum temperature is 75°С (167°F). Chemical composition of the water is sodium chloride with general mineralization of 3.7-4.0 g/l, with silicate of 53-160 mg/l. High concentration of methane-boron acid, up to 360 mg/l is peculiarity of these therms. By composition of the spontaneous gas the springs are carbonaceous.
Goryacherechenskie hot springs are located on flood plain of the left bank of the Goryachaya river in 12 km (7.5 miles) to the south-west of Vershinskaya top. There are 5 groups of springs here in the range of 2.5 km (1.6 miles). In high water in the Goryachaya they are flooded. Water temperature is 28-50°C (82-122°F). Chemical composition of the water is sodium chloride with general mineralization of 1.8-3.5 g/l, with silicate of 70-120 mg/l, methane and boron acid of 120-160 mg/l.
Zheltorechenskie springs are located in the valley of the Zheltaya river (one of the western source of the Pravaya Nalycheva river), in 11.5 km (7 miles) to the east of Vershinskaya mountain. Two groups of springs (small dispersed thermal water springs) are located in the flood plain of the right bank of the Zheltaya river. Water temperature is 39-42°C (102-107.6°F). Chemical composition of the water is sodium chloride with general mineralization of 3.5 g/l, with silicate acid up to 200 mg/l, methane and boron acid up to 160 mg/l, and arsenic up to 10-12 mg/l.
Shaibinskie springs are located on the flood plain of the left bank of the Shaibnaya river in 12 km (7.5 miles) to the south-east of Vershinskaya top. There are 2 groups of concentrated and dispersed springs here in the range of 1.5 km (.9 miles). In the places of thermal water seeping and flowing of it there are on the surface carbonate and ocherous (ferrous) precipitations. Water temperature is 8-17°C (46-62.6°F).
Kraevedcheskie springs – concentrated seeps of thermal water on both banks of the Talovaya river in the range of 2 km (1.2 miles) from the mouth. Water temperature is 52°C (125.6°F). Chemical composition of the water is sodium chloride with general mineralization of 7.5 g/l, with silicate up to 140 mg/l, and very high concentration of methane and boron acid up to 360 mg/l.
Talovskie springs – ones of the most exotic springs of Nalychevo kettle and located on the left bank of the Porozhistaya river (right tributary of the Shaibnaya river) in 2.6 km (1.6 miles) up the mouth. In the range of 1.5 km (.9 miles) 4 groups of springs are presented by several seeps of thermal water in large craters of travertine cones with height of more than 2 meters and the travertine is colored brown and yellow because of admixture of arsenic and iron. Water temperature is 8-31°C (46-87.8°F). Chemical composition of the water is sodium chloride with general mineralization of 5.8-6.0 g/l, with silicate up to 120 mg/l, methane and boron acid up to 180-200 mg/l. Higher concentration of phosphorus and arsenic (up to 13-14 mg/l) was found in the spring water and precipitations.
Aagskie carbonaceous thermal springs were discovered only in 1962. They are located in south-western part of Nalychevo Kettle, in 12 km (7.5 miles) to the north of Koryaksky volcano, in the upper reaches of a left source of the Chistaya river. Some separate seeps of mineral water are at the bottom and along the river banks for the distance of 1 km (.6 miles). Some springs gas intensively. Bright-orange precipitation of iron hydroxides deposits in the places of water seeps. For the distance of hundreds of meters downstream boulders are colored by this precipitation in the river bed. The left river bank is steep and high and it has more than 35 springs, part of them flow from the crack and the rest from craters on the ferric and travertine cones. These springs are located in the place of adjoining of the terrace to the edge of the valley. The precipitations from water form some typical constructions of 0.5-1.0 meter (1.6-3.3 ft), connected to the slope. There are usually small craters of 30 cm (12 inches) in diameter on the tops of such cones with mineral water overflowing. Spring water temperature is from 11 to 34-38°C (from 51.8 to 93.2-100.4°F). Aagskie springs water is sourish and tastes very pleasant. Its composition is hydrocarbonate sodium magnesium with general mineralization of 1-1.2 g/l and silicate acid of 160-250 mg/l. The dissolved and spontaneous gases consist of CO2 for more than 90%. By composition of water and gases these springs are similar to Caucasian Narzan (a brand of mineral water).
Timovoskie hot springs are located on both banks of a narrow valley of the left source of the Pad Timonovskaya river (the left tributary of the Sprednyaya Avacha river) approximately in 2 km (1.2 miles) to the north-west of Timonovskaya mountain. The springs relieve at the terrace foot in 3-3.5 meters (9.8-11.5 ft) from water's edge in the river. There are about 15 gryphons in total here. Their maximum temperature is 45-46°C (113-114.8°F), but there more springs with temperature of 23-33°C (73.4-91.4°F). Chemical compositions of the waters in all gryphons are alike and relate to sulphate chloride-hydrocarbonate sodium with general mineralization of 2,8 g/l, with silicate acid of 220 mg/l. In addition, there is a more high concentration of bromine (up to 1.9 mg/l) and iodine (up to 0.33 mg/l).
Oksinskie hot springs are located on the left steep terrace bank of the Anavgai river in the lower part of Chempura mountain in 36 km (22.4 miles) from Anavgai village, the Bystrinsky region. Rather strong springs jet at the height of 150 m (490 ft) above the valley bottom. Their temperature is 56°C (132.8°F). Hot streamlets gather into small lakes or flow down the slope in form of thin films and color them with precipitations of reddish tints. Thermophilic bacterium and alga give it more brightness and diversity of colors.Chemical composition of the water is hydrocarbonate sodium and sulphate-sodium with general mineralization of 1.7-3.1 g/l, with high concentration of silicate acid (up to 170 mg/l), methane and boron acid (up to 90 mg/l). Arsenic and carbon dioxide are also available.
Zhirovskie hot springs. They are located in one of the most beautiful valleys on the peninsula – the Zhirovaya river valley. Alternate lava flows and consolidated eruptive friable materials are clearly seen in the ruptures of its walls. In result of action by tectonic forces, glaciers and the river, the valley appeared to be cut to 700 m (2,297 ft) down the plateau. More impression from its depth is increased by relative narrowness and steepness of its forbidding walls.
There are two groups of springs in the valley such as the Upper one of fumarole nature located in the upper reaches of the Levaya Zhirovaya river and lower one in the middle current of the Zhirovaya river.
It is the lower group that is the famous Zhirovskie springs. The springs are located in 10 km (6.2 miles) from the ocean shore, near the foot of the giant rocky precipice. They consist of several large and a number of small gryphons with water temperature up to 99°C (210.2°F). Chemical composition of the water is chloride-sodium with general mineralization of 1.2-1.5 g/l.
Vilyuchinskie hot springs are located in upper part of the valley of the Vilyucha river not far from the foot of Vilyuchinsky volcano. The springs consist of two groups such as a lower one located on the right bank of the river and an upper one, on the left bank, in the distance of 1.5 km (.9 miles) from the lower one. Here a slope of Vilyuchinsky volcano closely adjoins a narrow valley and exterior precipices of ancient Zhirovsky volcano overhangs on the other side. One can get views to ocean bays from the slopes. Altogether they make Vilyuchinskaya valley exclusively picturesque. The lower group consists of one large gryphon that occupies the top of the stepped light-blown cone of 5 m (16.4 ft) and small seeps at its foot. Some dam-baths are set in the outflowing hot spring below. Water temperature is 40-60°C (140°F). Chemical composition of the springs is sodium chloride hydrocarbonate with general mineralization up to 1.2 g/l, and silicate acid up to 100 mg/l.
Dachnye hot springs are located to the north of Mutnovsky volcano, near the foot of Skalistaya mountain. They consist of several groups, scattered in ravines and narrow gullies. A western group is the largest one of them. It is located in a deep ravine. Steam jets gush out and steam boilers boil on the slope and a big kettle seethes, and steam and water fountain wells out without stopping at the bottom. Dachnye springs are the place of the mightiest release of heat from the subsoil of the vast Mutnovsky hydrothermal field. Chemical composition of the springs is sulphate-calcium, hydrocarbonate sodium with low general mineralization from 0.12 to 0.7 g/l.
Khodutkinskie hot springs are located on the south-west of Kamchatka in the valley of the Pravaya Khodutka river. They are located in 3 km (1.9 miles) from the top of Priyemysh mountain, on the vast glade surrounded by forest. Hot water from craters-gryphons, scattered on gathers, into a stream. Strong jets also well out on its bottom and banks and the stream turns into a real small river 30 m (98 ft) wide and 1.5 m (4.9 ft) deep. Water temperature in gryphons reaches 80°C (176°F), but as it flows its temperature drops. Beyond the glade the river flows for hundreds of meters through a birch forest that beautifully boarders its slightly steaming surface by its green walls. The temperature in the deepest but a little cooled down part of the river is about 42-43°C (107.6-109.4°F) in summer. Khodutkinskie springs are Nature’s monument.
Chemical composition of the water is hydrocarbonate-chloride-sodium with high mineralization (0.5 g/l), and with silicate acid up to 90 mg/l.
Verkhne-Paratunskie hot springs are located in the valley of the Paratunka river in 2.5 km (1.6 miles) above flowing of the Karymshina river and in 16 km (9.9 miles) to the south-west of Paratunka settlement on the left slope of the valley. The springs are located in the bend of a slope of Goryachaya mountain, that divide the valleys of these rivers on the height of about 80 meters (263 ft). Their seeps are clearly seen from a distance by puffs of steam and typical vegetation. There are light-green bushes of shelomainik that brightly distinguished among the thick dwarf Siberian pines. More than 16 hot springs form three parallel flowing warm streams. There is a warm waterfall in 70 m (230 ft) from sources of the stream that has rather steep slope. Water temperature is 39-70°C (102.2-158°F). Chemical composition of the water is calcium-sodium and moderate siliceous (up to 45 mg/l) with general mineralization about 1 g/l, and arsenic about 0.3 mg/l.
Malkinskie hot springs are located in the picturesque place in 5 km to the east of Malki settlement, on the left bank of the Klyuchevka river (the left tributary of the Bystraya river). The river valley is 0.4-0.5 km (.25-.31 miles) wide and edged on both sides with elevations that became overgrown with stone birch forest. Six groups of gryphons are located on a small thermal site covered with pebbles. Thermal water of the springs is mixed with cold water of the river. Chemical composition of the water is hydrocarbonate-chloride-sulphate sodium with general mineralization of 0.7 g/l, with silicate acid (120 mg/l), methane and boron acid arsenous acid (0.1 mg/l), and also small amount of bromine.
Verkhne-Opalskie hot springs are located in the left bank part of the valley of the Levaya Opala river, on a small river that flows from the north-west slope of ancient Asacha volcano. The springs are located in the forest. They consist of two large gryphons located in deep craters. Strong jets with temperature of 74°C (165.2°F) well out at their bottom among twisting threads of thermophilic bacterium. There is a small wooden bath at the confluence of streams flowing from the craters. Its water cooled down enough for bathing. Chemical composition of the water is chloride-sulphate-sodium with general mineralization of 0.4 g/l.
Ksudachinskie hot springs are located in the Shtyubel crater on Ksudach volcano on the north-west bank of Klyuchevoye Lake and form a hot beach. The heated pad extends within 200 m (656 ft). The thermal water seeps are dispersed and leak through small pumice of the bank of Klyuchevoye Lake. There is a bath on the thermal site. Water temperature is 30-70°C (86-158°F). Chemical composition of the water is hydrocarbonate-sulphate calcium-sodium with general mineralization of 0.6-0.8 g/l, with silicate acid of 160 mg/l.
Karymskie hot springs are located near active volcano in the upper reaches of the Karymskaya river, on its left bank, in 3 km (1.9 miles) to the south-east of the top of Karymsky volcano, actually at its feet. The site with springs is a flat-bottomed swampy kettle. Thermal water releases on its area of 2 sq. km. (.8 sq miles) in form of various thermal springs. There are two main kinds of thermal springs such as hot mineral water springs with temperature of 25 , 36, 42°C (77, 96.8, 107.6°F), they precipitate iron hydroxides and form sloping limonite cones with gryphons on tops and also water craters and tiny ponds, and they gas weakly; and warm mineral water springs with temperature of 9-22°C (48.2-71.6°F) with several concentrated seeps from under lavas of Karymsky volcano.
Chemical composition of the water is chloride-hydrocarbonate-sulphate sodium-magnesium siliceous (with silicate acid up to 295 mg/l) with general mineralization up to 2.6 g/l. Boron, fluorine, and lithium are specific components. CO2 (>75 vol. %) prevails in the gas composition and radon also available. High concentration of phosphorus and arsenic are in silicon-ferruginous precipitations of waters.
Academii Nauk springs (small geysers) are located on the south bank of Karymskoye Lake in 5 km (3.1 miles) to the south of Karymsky volcano. There are a lot of jetting and gushing seeps here in the range of 2.5 km (1.6 miles) that form tiny ponds connected with canals. Geyserites and silicon-carbonate precipitations abundantly settle down near the springs. Chemical composition of the water is chloride-sodium with high concentration of silicate acid (340 mg/l). General mineralization of 1.2 g/l. By its chemical composition and temperature they are mostly similar to boiling springs of the Valley of Geysers and Uzon Caldera, however, they have lower mineralization. Its spontaneous gas is carbonic acid and nitric.
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